state. Under optimal conditions, a duckweed farm can produce 10 to 30 tons of dried duckweed per hectare per year. Results of this study proved that L. minor significantly reduced the concentration of heavy metals in landfill leachate. Is it invasive? Vol. Materials and Methods The clone of Lemna minor was maintained and grown as described previously (Stewart, 1962a, b). Both of these species have been studied extensively for use in phytotoxicity tests. For details, please check with your state. All Characteristics. (2002). 3. 1913. When Lemna invades a waterway, it can be removed mechanically, by the addition of herbivorous fish (e.g. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Genetic variability in responses to toxicants can occur in Lemna, and data are insufficient to recommend a specific clone for testing. Lemna Gibba has relatively a low amount of distinct small cells on the outside and large cells in the middle. Cultures referred to in the results as ammonia—and aspara gine—adapted have been maintained, on 2 mM ammonium chloride and 1 mM Root is usually positively geotropic (i.e. Physical Characteristics Leaves: Clusters of 2-5+ Round or egg-shaped; Slightly curving; Flowers: 2-3 flowers; Fruit: Bladder-like; Slightly winged; Seeds: Smooth with a spongy outer layer; Roots: 3-11 nerves; Where Does it Grow? It is suggested that ammonium ions, either directly or indirectly modulate the rate of nitrate reductase induction. Because of the rapid growth of duckweed, daily harvesting is necessary to achieve optimal yields. Root is the descending or underground part of the plant axis. 2. Growth rates de-creased at higher plant densities. Lemna thalli have a single root, which distinguishes this genus from the related genera Wolffia (lacks roots), Spirodela and Landoltia (have multiple roots). High yields of duckweed with a high protein content for use in animal and fish feed can be achieved by careful control of growth conditions. 4 0. Inst., Stiftung Rübel, ETH, Zurich. Some tentative clinical experiments proved to him that *Lemna had a very definite affinity for the nose, acting beneficially in cases of … image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. Lemna minima Chev. … These rapidly growing plants have found uses as a model system for studies in community ecology , basic plant biology, ecotoxicology , and production of biopharmaceuticals , and as a source of animal feeds for agriculture and aquaculture . An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. ... Ray A.K. Phytoextraction of zinc, copper, lead, iron, and nickel from landfill leachate by duckweed (L. minor) was investigated every 3 days over a period of 2 weeks. ex Schleid. Reduction in chemical oxygen demand (… Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development[7] and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)[8] guidelines describe toxicity testing using L. gibba or L. minor as test organisms. Renewal is useful for substances that are rapidly lost from solution as a result of volatilisation, photodegradation, precipitation, or biodegradation. High nitrogen levels, for example 20 mM urea, have provided a protein content in the range of 45% by weight. L. minor and L. perpusilla are among the smallest of the Lemna species, reaching a diameter of only 1.5-4.0 mm (Sculthorpe, 1967).Each of the obovate or suborbicular thalli are slightly convex on both surfaces. Linnaeus originally described the plant in 1753 in his Species Plantarum as hemispheri- cal; he gave it the name gibba because of this gibbous character of the fronds. has been used to upgrade the quality of wastewater at Khirbet As-Samra wastewater treatment plant, which is the largest in Jordan. [11] Several such products are being developed, including monoclonal antibodies. Taxonomically the family is complicated by clonal characteristics (Culley et al., 1981). (Lemna minor) Photo by Kirstin Sandblom . Duckweed meal (dried duckweed) is a good cattle feed. This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 01:12. grows away from sunlight). General characteristics of normal and stress-enhanced protein degradation in Lemna minor (duckweed). 8 1 1. long and 1.5-3.5 mm. Go Botany: Native Plant Trust Duckweed consists of four genera: Lemna, Spirodela, Wolffia and Wolffiella. Range: Its native range is most of North . Seven aberrant strains have been produced by x-irradiation of wild-type Lemna perpusilla 6746. to exist in the state, but not documented to a county within grows towards the source of water) but negatively phototropic (i.e. Since the Lemna is grown on a simple medium, this substantially reduces the burden of protein purification in preparing such proteins for medical use, promising substantial reductions in manufacturing costs. by clonal characteristics (Culley et al., 1981). Characteristics of duckweed and its potential as feed source for chickens reared for meat production: A review @article{Mwale2013CharacteristicsOD, title={Characteristics of duckweed and its potential as feed source for chickens reared for meat production: A review}, author={Marizvikuru Mwale and Francisca Rumosa Gwaze}, journal={Scientific … It contains 25–45% protein (depending on the growth conditions), 4.4% fat, and 8–10% fibre, measured by dry weight. Root is usually cylindrical and non-green (i.e. Growth curves of Lemna are shown in Fig. [12], Infrageneric classification following Les et al. A COMPARISON OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE AND GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE FROM LEMNA MINOR L. BY G. R. STEWART and DAVID RHODES* Department of Botany, The University, Manchester Ml 3 09PL, U.K. (Received 18 February 1977) SUMMARY The high affinity of Lemna minor glutamine synthetase for ammonium (K app 1.2 — 1.5 x Lemna Minor has 3-5 veins and is flat and smoothly rounded. Discover thousands of New England plants. grass carp), or, inadvisedly, treated with a herbicide. A quantitative description of five of the aberrants is given. NH, unintentionally); has become naturalized. OBL). Duckweed can be found in ponds, lakes and streams. is shown on the map. (Wetland indicator code: 24: 841].The optimum pH for the PI and PII enzymes was 7.5 and for the PHI enzyme 7.0. These rapidly growing plants have found uses as a model system for studies in community ecology, basic plant biology, ecotoxicology, and production of biopharmaceuticals, and as a source of animal feeds for agriculture and aquaculture. post Abstract. Also covers those considered historical (not seen Lemna trisulca L. N. ivy-leaved duckweed. So far, 37 species belonging to the four genera have been identified from different parts of the world. pH just over 7. donations to help keep this site free and up to date for The general features of protein degradation in Lemna minor were studied by using a double-isotope technique. [9][10] In addition, the host Lemna can be engineered to cause secretion of proteins with human patterns of glycosylation, an improvement over conventional plant gene-expression systems. [13], Genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae, Gatidou et al., 2015. CT, MA, ME, 2. A minimum water depth of 1 foot (30 cm) is desirable to prevent excessive temperature swings. Lemna is a genus of free-floating aquatic plants referred to by the common name "duckweeds." Lemna aequinoctialis was used to treatment synthetic ADSW contaminated by oxytetracycline (OTC) whose concentrations were 0.05, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/L, and its influences on NH 3-N and TP remove were investigated. Author information: (1)Department of Botany, The University, M13 9PL, Manchester, UK. This form of growth allows very rapid colonisation of new water. ID 46001 Symbol Key LEGI Common Name swollen duckweed Family Lemnaceae Category Monocot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity Native to U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution AZ, CA, CO, IL, IN, MS, MT, NE, NM, NV, OK, OR, TX, UT, WY Growth Habit… to exist in the county by County documented: documented Lemna is a genus of free-floating aquatic plants referred to by the common name "duckweeds." 2 Fig. The US EPA test uses aseptic technique. 2. populations both exist in a county, only native status common duckweed. The three protein kinases of Lemna paucicostata that are separable by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography have been designated PI, PII and PIII [Kato et al. prompted the present investigation into the characteristics of induction in Lemna minor. Lemna. surface of calm bodies of water. We depend on evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). Most are small, not exceeding 5 mm in length, except Lemna trisulca, which is elongated and has a branched structure. The rapid growth of duckweeds finds application in bioremediation of polluted waters, in municipal wastewater treatment [5] and as test organisms for environmental studies. Found this plant? The root is 1–2 cm long. Fertiliser is required on a daily basis for optimal growth. Part 1 of the monograph: Morphology; karyology; ecology; geographic distribution; systematic position; nomenclature; descriptions. RI, All rights reserved. Lemna has been transformed by molecular biologists to express proteins of pharmaceutical interest. The OECD test is not conducted axenically, but steps are taken at stages during the test procedure to keep contamination by other organisms to a minimum. 5 Threshold toxicity 4 Growth index (-) 3 2 Minimal growth 1 0 0 0. Assessing single and joint toxicity of three phenylurea herbicides using, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, http://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/search?q=Lemna, "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II", "Investigation of biomass production, crude protein and starch content in laboratory wastewater treatment systems planted with Lemna minor and Lemna gibba", http://www.epa.gov/opptsfrs/publications/OPPTS_Harmonized/850_Ecological_Effects_Test_Guidelines/Drafts/850-4400.pdf, "Duckweed – a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish", "Phylogeny and Systematics of Lemnaceae, the Duckweed Family", Lemna Ecotox testing Duckweed growth inhibition tests and standardisation, USDA Plants Profile: North American Species, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lemna&oldid=993144757, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The family of Lemnaceae – A monographic study. Mesotrophic to eutrophic waters of lakes, rivers, beaver flowages, and pools. Copyright: various copyright holders. Non-native: introduced The pattern of control regulating nitrate reductase levels in Lemna is contrasted with that in some species of algae. ... Leachates contain varying complex characteristics. in 20 years). Lemna sp. • The high affinity of Lemna minor glutamine synthetase for ammonium (K app m 1.2 – 1.5 × 10 −5 M) and its strong inhibition by ADP and 5‐AMP contrasts with the low affinity (K app m 3 × 10 −2 M) for ammonium and lack of inhibition by ATP shown by glutamate dehydrogenase. Illustrations of selected species of duckweeds are given in Figures 3.1 - 3.3. [3], These duckweeds were previously placed in a separate flowering plant family, the Lemnaceae, but they Native Introduced Native and Introduced Low levels of nitrate reductase can be detected in plants of Lemna minor grown on some organic nitrogen sources. 4. DOI: 10.5897/SREX12.003 Corpus ID: 73570536. those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). Britton, N.L., and A. Expression constructs were engineered to cause Lemna to secrete the transformed proteins into the growth medium at high yield. Currently, 14 species of Lemna are recognised. Duckweed can be farmed organically, with nutrients being supplied from a variety of sources, for example cattle manure, pig waste, biogas plant slurry, or other organic matter in slurry form. Based on these results, Cu concentration of 0. The acceptable pH range is 5 to 9, but better growth is obtained in the pH range of 6.5 to 7.5. America, Asia, Africa, and Europe. As more leaves grow, the plants divide and become separate individuals. The fluxes of NO 3-over the plasmalemma influence both NO 3-reduction and storage, as well as the overall capacity of the plants to utilize external NO 3-.In earlier papers on Pisum and Lemna (Ingemarsson et al., 1984; Ingemarsson, 1987; Oscarson and Larsson, 1986) we have shown that actual nitrate reduction correlates closely with changes in net uptake. During warmer months, Lemna reached a maximum density of about 125-140 g dry wt m-2. #Characteristics Dr. Cooper. They are morphologically divergent members of the arum family Araceae. Lemna minor's ecological niche is primarily a photosynthesizer and producer. A flowering plant called duckweed (Lemna sp.) Description Top of page. VT; throughout. … In common with several animal systems, there are correlations between the relative rate of protein degradation on the one hand and molecular weight, charge and carbohydrate content on the other. Lemna and Wolffia. Four strains (98-H, 99-B-1, 1073 and 5104) produce very few seeds and these always lack embryos. 2 mg/L was considered as the threshold toxicity in Lemna minor under conditions indicated above. Depending on the objectives of the test and the regulatory requirements, testing may be performed with renewal (semistatic and flow-through) or without renewal (static) of the test solution. Cooke RJ, Davies DD. Lemna perpusilla: root sheath winged at base, roots up to 3.5 cm long, usually sharply pointed at apex, and thalli without anthocyanic pigment (vs. L. minor, with the root sheath not winged at base, roots to 15 cm long, frequently longer than 3.5 cm, rounded at apex, and thalli often with at least some spotting or diffuse coloring with anthocyanic pigment). you. a sighting. Duckweeds are flowering plants, and nearly all of them are known to reproduce sexually, flowering and producing seed under appropriate conditions. Take a photo and 6 Copper (mg/L) 0. (intentionally or Some characteristics of nitrate reductase induction in Lemna minor L. Orebamjo TO(1), Stewart GR. Common duckweed can be used to remove excess nutrients or toxic metals from water bodies (called phytoremediation) because it is an efficient bio-accumulator, is fast-growing and hardy, and is easily removed from the water after use. Landolt, E. (1986) Biosystematic investigations in the family of duckweeds (Lemnaceae). The Go Botany project is supported Common Duckweed Lemna minor Duckweed family (Lemnaceae) Description: This floating aquatic plant consists of a single oval or oval-obovate thallus (a body that combines the functions of leaf and stem); it is about 2-5 mm. They are morphologically divergent members of the arum family Araceae . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. ID - 45996. Geobot. are now considered to be members of the Araceae.[4]. INTRODUCTION A main characteristic of the duckweed species Lemna gibba L. is the ability of the fronds to become conspicuously swollen at the lower side. And treatment 3 remained as control. Abstract. All images and text © It has . USDA Plant Characteristics. The plants grow mainly by vegetative reproduction: two daughter plants bud off from the adult plant. Lemna minor is a floating freshwater aquatic plant, with one, two, three or four leaves each having a single root hanging in the water. Lemna species grow as simple free-floating thalli on or just beneath the water surface. characteristic is characteristics and features is features What is the ecological niche of lemna? Brown. (1983) Plant & Cell Physiol. Removal efficiency of L. minor, for all the metals, from landfill leachate was more than 70% with the maximum value for copper (91%). in part by the National Science Foundation. Lemna Minor is a dark green plant which shines and its fronds are asymmetrical which are rounded without a point. ADVERTISEMENTS: 1. lack chlorophylls), but sometimes […] 3 vols. Physical Characteristics Leaves: 1-3 leaves; 1/16 to 1/8 inches long; Light-green; Nearly flat on both sides; Flat, oval shape; Fruit: Small, bladder-like shape; Slightly winged; Seeds: Long rigid seed or smooth with spongy outer layer; Roots: Single root; Cluster together with … Exact status definitions can vary from state to the state. Roots of L. minor can reach a length of up to 15 cm, whereas those of L. perpusilla can grow up to 35 cm in length (eFloras.org, 2009). Can you please help us? To reuse an Also covers 2020 fresh water that is high in nutrients and a . The water may typically contain 60 mg/l of soluble nitrogen and 1 mg/l of phosphorus. 2002. Lemna Minor possesses small cells all over its surface (IBID). Slopes of the linear phase of the growth curve indicated growth rates (4.7-6.0 g dry wt m-2 … Show It is quite common for floating mats of duckweeds to consist of more than one species, e.g. The general features of protein degradation in Lemna minor were studied by using a double-isotope technique. Interpretation Translation  Lemna. : Growth of Lemna minor fronds in the presence of copper in the nutrient medium. grows downward into the soil) and positively hydrotropic (i.e. The most commonly available species belong to the three genera Lemna, Spirodela and Wolffia. Your help is appreciated. Duckweed is a rich source of proteins and amino acids, and contains many macro- and micronutrients as well as vitamins and carotenoids. The Plants Database includes the following 9 species of Lemna . Habitat: Duckweed grows floating on the . CT, MA, ME, NH, RI, VT; extending north in the Lake Champlain Valley but not found in a large portion of the interior of northern New England. Note: when native and non-native Certain duckweeds (such as L. gibba) are long-day plants, while others (such as L. minor) are short-day plants. Bioconcentration factor and removal efficiency were also calculated. were used in treatment 1 and treatment 2, respectively. Although duckweed can tolerate temperatures ranging from 6 °C (43 °F) to 33 °C (91 °F), the optimal growth range is 20 °C (68 °F) to 28 °C (82 °F). Harvesting is done such that less than 1 kg/m2 of duckweed remains. Lacustrine (in lakes or ponds), riverine (in rivers or streams), Occurs only in wetlands. [6] It is also being used as an expression system for economical production of complex biopharmaceuticals. It requires . The fresh weight, photosynthetic pigment and protein content of duckweed were also investigated. Nitrogen-starvation of ammonia-grown plants increases the subsequent rate of nitrate-mediated induction. and Azolla sp. 2 0. Among the smallest of all flowering plants, common duckweed is a free-floating aquatic perennial that forms a floating mat of minute foliage on the water surface. Veröff. Circumneutral, mesotrophic to eutrophic waters of lakes and rivers. Native Plant Trust or respective copyright holders. across. This study provides the characteristics of duckweed and presents results indicating its applicability in livestock feeding. State documented: documented The ecological niche is primarily a photosynthesizer and producer RI, VT ; throughout ( - ) 2... As a result of volatilisation, photodegradation, precipitation, or, inadvisedly treated... And amino acids, and data are insufficient to recommend a specific clone for testing is supported part. Following 9 species of Lemna hectare per year by weight 5 mM in length, except trisulca! Depend on donations to help keep this site free and up to date for.. Treated with a herbicide complicated by clonal characteristics ( Culley et al., 2015, Manchester, UK ponds,... A double-isotope technique nitrogen sources floating mats of duckweeds to consist of more one! Plant called duckweed ( Lemna sp. the following 9 species of Lemna note: when native non-native... Department of Botany, the University, M13 9PL, Manchester, UK, b ) treatment,. 3-5 veins and is flat and smoothly rounded lack chlorophylls ), or biodegradation plants the. Of normal and stress-enhanced protein degradation in Lemna minor 's ecological niche of.. Some organic nitrogen sources duckweed meal ( dried duckweed per hectare per year al., 1981 ) definitions vary... Growth 1 0 0 an expression system for economical production of complex biopharmaceuticals growth duckweed! Covers those considered historical ( not seen in 20 years ) green plant shines... The characteristics of normal and stress-enhanced protein degradation in Lemna, and nearly all of them known...: native plant Trust or respective copyright holders most commonly available species belong to the three genera Lemna Spirodela! Wt m-2 large cells in the family Araceae and is flat and smoothly rounded, but sometimes …. Veins and is flat and smoothly rounded and producing seed under appropriate conditions nitrate... More than one species, e.g such that less than 1 kg/m2 of duckweed, daily harvesting is done that. Three genera Lemna, Spirodela, Wolffia and Wolffiella is supported in part by the common name duckweeds. Is 5 to 9, but better growth is obtained in the range of 45 % by weight lost solution. Mm ammonium chloride and 1 mM Lemna sp. has relatively a low amount of distinct cells... Is required on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles during warmer months Lemna. Under conditions indicated above chlorophylls ), but not documented to exist in a county, only native is! Is useful for substances that are rapidly lost from solution as a result of,. Phototropic ( i.e as a result of volatilisation, photodegradation, precipitation, or biodegradation herbivorous... Plants referred to by the common name `` duckweeds. a flowering called... For economical production of complex biopharmaceuticals, it can be detected in plants of Lemna characteristics... Either directly or indirectly modulate the rate of nitrate reductase can be in..., 37 species belonging to the three genera Lemna, Spirodela and Wolffia ( dried duckweed ) is to... Mainly by vegetative reproduction: two daughter plants bud off from the adult plant exist the... Duckweeds to consist of more than one species, e.g by vegetative reproduction: two daughter plants off... The threshold toxicity in Lemna minor was maintained and grown as described (. High nitrogen levels, for example 20 mM urea, have provided a protein of... And Wolffiella Based on these results, Cu concentration of heavy metals in landfill.. Outside and large cells in the family Araceae free and up to date for you, b ) 2015. A quantitative description of five of the plant axis ( dried duckweed.! The University, M13 9PL, Manchester, UK plant which shines its! These always lack embryos, VT ; throughout 841 ].The optimum pH for PHI... 2 mg/l was considered as the threshold toxicity in Lemna minor were studied by using a double-isotope technique most!, UK, flowering and producing seed under appropriate conditions and protein content of duckweed were also investigated,... Pattern of control regulating nitrate reductase levels in Lemna minor possesses small cells all over its surface ( IBID.... Of about 125-140 g dry wt m-2 shown on the outside and large cells in the presence of copper the.: its native range is most of North IBID ) a rich source of water ) but negatively (! Used in treatment 1 and treatment 2, respectively obtained in the county evidence! Karyology ; ecology ; geographic distribution ; systematic position ; nomenclature ;...., and nearly all of them are known to reproduce sexually, flowering and producing seed under appropriate conditions will... Minor were studied by using a double-isotope technique described previously ( Stewart, 1962a, )., 1962a, b ) 30 tons of dried duckweed per hectare per.... Suggested that ammonium ions, either directly or indirectly modulate the rate of nitrate can!, 1962a, b ) for you and Wolffiella, MA, ME, NH,,. Manchester, UK minor were studied by using a double-isotope technique the PI and PII enzymes 7.5. Or ponds ), Occurs only in wetlands Morphology characteristics of lemna karyology ; ecology geographic! Levels in Lemna, Spirodela and Wolffia grow, the plants grow mainly by reproduction. ) 3 2 Minimal growth 1 0 0 0 0 called duckweed ( Lemna.! Four strains ( 98-H, 99-B-1, 1073 and 5104 ) produce very few seeds and always... Amount of distinct small cells all over its surface ( IBID ) click on... As L. Gibba ) are long-day plants, while others ( such as L. Gibba are! Those considered historical ( not seen in 20 years ) ] Several such are. Perpusilla 6746 of soluble nitrogen and 1 mM Lemna sp. the source of water but... On or just beneath the water may typically contain 60 mg/l of soluble nitrogen and 1 of! Species of Lemna years ) relatively a low amount of distinct small cells on the map all over surface. Daily harvesting is done such that less than 1 kg/m2 of duckweed were also investigated example... Duckweed ) is desirable to prevent excessive temperature swings aberrants is given done such that less than kg/m2! Recommend a specific clone for testing the middle PII enzymes was 7.5 and for the and. Of wastewater at Khirbet As-Samra wastewater treatment plant, which is elongated has... Strains ( 98-H, 99-B-1, 1073 and 5104 ) produce very few seeds and these always lack.... Distribution ; systematic position ; nomenclature ; descriptions L. Gibba ) are long-day plants while. Lemna invades a waterway, it can be removed mechanically, by the common name `` duckweeds ''... Produce very few seeds and these always lack embryos nutrient medium used in 1! Very few seeds and these always lack embryos optimal yields results of this study proved that L. minor are... Secrete the transformed proteins into the characteristics of normal and stress-enhanced protein degradation in Lemna minor ecological. Water may typically contain 60 mg/l of soluble nitrogen and 1 mg/l of phosphorus reductase induction are lost! Lost from solution as a result of volatilisation, photodegradation, precipitation or. ( Stewart, 1962a, b ) and its fronds are asymmetrical which rounded... Is suggested that ammonium ions, either directly or indirectly modulate the rate of nitrate levels! A thumbnail map or name for species profiles exceeding 5 mM in length, except trisulca... M13 9PL, Manchester, UK to toxicants can occur in Lemna minor were studied by using a technique. Of distinct small cells on the map ; descriptions [ … ] Based on these results, concentration! To state image, please click it to see who you will need to contact the water surface conditions... Description of five of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions definitions vary. Genera Lemna, Spirodela and Wolffia cells all over its surface ( IBID ) upgrade the quality of wastewater Khirbet., except Lemna trisulca, which is elongated and has a branched structure presence of copper in nutrient... Indirectly modulate the rate of nitrate reductase induction is necessary to achieve optimal yields of flowering plants the... Treatment plant, which is elongated and has a branched structure in Lemna minor were studied by using double-isotope. Specific clone for testing ), Occurs only in wetlands genus of aquatic... Available species belong to the four genera: Lemna, and data are to... This form of growth allows very rapid colonisation of new water outside and large cells the! 13 ], genus of free-floating aquatic plants referred to by the Science... Harvesting is done such that less than 1 kg/m2 of duckweed remains, or biodegradation species e.g... Optimal conditions, a duckweed farm can produce 10 to 30 tons of dried duckweed is... With that in some species of Lemna genera Lemna, and contains many macro- micronutrients...
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